June 26, 2020

QSC project

Quantum-Secure Cryptography
and Fine-Grained Quantum Query Complexity

About

This is a project funded by the NSF Algorithmic Foundations program, in the Division of Computing and Communication Foundations. The full title of the project is “AF: Medium: Collaborative Research: Quantum-Secure Cryptography and Fine-Grained Quantum Query Complexity.” The start date is August 1, 2018 and the end date is July 31, 2021. It is a collaborative project involving three institutions: University of Maryland, University of Connecticut, and Portland State University.

NSF website project page

Project abstract

Secure Internet communication faces a real threat in the form of a new breed of computer that harnesses the laws of quantum mechanics. The technical community is currently hard at work attempting to construct such “quantum” computers. While many mysteries about these devices remain, it is certain that a large-scale quantum computer would easily break all current public-key cryptography that underpins the current Internet. In certain attack models, important examples of private-key cryptography would also be rendered insecure. This 3-institution collaborative project studies the basic theoretical issues underlying these urgent threats to the security infrastructure. It seeks to understand the cryptography-breaking power of quantum computers, concentrating on two interweaving themes: quantum security for 1) authenticating, and 2) constructing quantum-secure cryptography from new primitives. The project activities also include course development and mentorship at the graduate and undergraduate level. The project also involves specific outreach activities intended to broaden participation in Computer Science, including establishment and development of “women in computer science” chapters, outreach to local high schools, workshops for high-school STEM teachers, and development of computer science courses for a general audience at the three partner institutions.

Authentication–proofs, for example, that an e-mail really did originate from you–is a basic and well-studied cryptographic challenge. In the setting of quantum adversaries, it is not clear how to appropriately formulate this essential notion, let alone produce specific cryptographic tools that achieve it. This project is addressing both of the challenges noted above, focusing on development of strong formulations of authentication and new cryptographic constructions that offer secure authentication. Finding “hidden” algebraic structures–like the fact that two lists of numbers are merely cyclic shifts of each other–is an emblematic theme in the study of the computing power of quantum computers. Certain variants of this problem have resisted decades of concerted effort by the quantum algorithms community, and appear to be quite difficult. This project studies applications of these problems to constructing new private-key cryptographic tools with quantum security guarantees.


Project institutions and personnel

InstitutionPIStudents
University of MarylandGorjan AlagicBibhusa Rawal
University of ConnecticutAlex RussellLuke Johnson
Portland State UniversityFang SongBen Hamlin and Chuhan Lu

Publications

JabRef references
Matching entries: 0
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AuthorTitleYearJournal/ProceedingsReftypeDOI/URL
Alagic, G., Childs, A.M., Grilo, A.B. and Hung, S.-H. Non-interactive classical verification of quantum computation 2019 arXiv, pp. arXiv-1911  article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{alagic2019non,
  author = {Alagic, Gorjan and Childs, Andrew M and Grilo, Alex B and Hung, Shih-Han},
  title = {Non-interactive classical verification of quantum computation},
  journal = {arXiv},
  year = {2019},
  pages = {arXiv--1911},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1911.08101}
}
Alagic, G., Majenz, C. and Russell, A. Efficient simulation of random states and random unitaries 2020 Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques, pp. 759-787  inproceedings URL 
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{alagic2020efficient,
  author = {Alagic, Gorjan and Majenz, Christian and Russell, Alexander},
  title = {Efficient simulation of random states and random unitaries},
  booktitle = {Annual International Conference on the Theory and Applications of Cryptographic Techniques},
  year = {2020},
  pages = {759--787},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/1910.05729}
}
Alagic, G., Brakerski, Z., Dulek, Y. and Schaffner, C. Impossibility of Quantum Virtual Black-Box Obfuscation of Classical Circuits 2020 arXiv preprint arXiv:2005.06432  article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{alagic2020impossibility,
  author = {Alagic, Gorjan and Brakerski, Zvika and Dulek, Yfke and Schaffner, Christian},
  title = {Impossibility of Quantum Virtual Black-Box Obfuscation of Classical Circuits},
  journal = {arXiv preprint arXiv:2005.06432},
  year = {2020},
  url = {https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.06432}
}
Demarest, L., Fuller, B. and Russell, A. Code Offset in the Exponent 2019 IACR eprint  article URL 
BibTeX:
@article{demarest2019code,
  author = {Demarest, Luke and Fuller, Benjamin and Russell, Alexander},
  title = {Code Offset in the Exponent},
  journal = {IACR eprint},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://eprint.iacr.org/2018/1005}
}
Eaton, E. and Song, F. A Note on the Instantiability of the Quantum Random Oracle 2020 International Conference on Post-Quantum Cryptography, pp. 503-523  inproceedings DOI URL 
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{ES20,
  author = {Eaton, Edward and Song, Fang},
  title = {A Note on the Instantiability of the Quantum Random Oracle},
  booktitle = {International Conference on Post-Quantum Cryptography},
  year = {2020},
  pages = {503--523},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44223-1_27},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-44223-1_27}
}
Hamlin, B. and Song, F. Quantum security of hash functions and property-preservation of iterated hashing 2019 10th International Conference on Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQCrypto 2019)  inproceedings DOI URL 
BibTeX:
@inproceedings{HS19,
  author = {Hamlin, Ben and Song, Fang},
  title = {Quantum security of hash functions and property-preservation of iterated hashing},
  booktitle = {10th International Conference on Post-Quantum Cryptography (PQCrypto 2019)},
  year = {2019},
  url = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25510-7_18},
  doi = {https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-25510-7_18}
}
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